By Jonathan Chadwick For Mailonline. Scientists have discovered evidence of the oldest use of bows and arrows by prehistoric humans outside of Africa, in a cave in Sri Lanka.

Fragments of arrowheads, made from the bone of boar, deer, primates and other creatures, were used to hunt tree-dwelling animals at least 45, years ago. The preserved shards, found in the cave of Fa-Hien Lena to the southwest of the Asian island, helped hunters catch speedy rainforest monkeys and squirrels. An international team of archaeologists say the arrow fragments are older than any evidence of similar technology found in Europe. Also found among the bone tools were artefacts shaped as awls or scrapers, usually associated with the working of clothes or fibres for fishing nets.

Other artefacts found at the site include coloured beads produced from mineral ochre and the decorative shell beads, likely traded from the coast. The island of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean, just south of the Indian subcontinent, is home to the earliest fossils of our species, Homo sapiens, in South Asia.

Fa-Hien Lena has emerged as one of South Asia's most important archaeological sites since the s, preserving remains of our species, their tools, and their prey in a tropical context. There are also other bone tools, in addition to the projectile points, that are shaped as awls or scrapers which are usually associated with the working of hides clothes or fibres nets. The new study saw scientists turn to the beautifully preserved material culture from the cave of Fa-Hien Lena, deep in the heart of Sri Lanka's Wet Zone forests.

The study provides the earliest evidence for bow-and-arrow use, and perhaps the making of clothes, outside of Africa, dating back around 45, to 48, years ago. This evidence of 'projectile technology', personal ornamentation and long-distance social networks in a tropical rainforest offer new insight into how early Homo sapiens adapted to diverse, extreme environments as they spread across the globe.

The question as to exactly how humans obtained rainforest resources — including fast-moving food sources like monkeys and squirrels — remains unresolved, however. Asia, Australasia, and the Americas have often been side-lined in discussions of the origins of material culture, such as novel projectile hunting methods, which have focused on the grasslands and coasts of Africa or the temperate environments of Europe.

More extreme environments, such as the tropical rainforests of Asia, have been largely overlooked, despite their deep history of human occupation. The team found clear evidence for the production of coloured beads from mineral ochre and the refined making of shell beads traded from the coast.

Humans occupied and adapted to extreme environments as they migrated beyond Africa, including into deserts, high-altitude settings and tropical rainforests, such as those of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean, just south of the Indian subcontinent. The international team of scientists, from Germany, Australia and Sri Lanka, studied materials taken from the cave of Fa-Hien Lena, deep in the heart of the island's Wet Zone forests.

The cave is legendary for being the home of Late Pleistocene human fossilised skeletal remains, which were discovered in the cave's sediments during excavations in the s and the s.

The bone tools and artefacts analysed for this study were recovered during the to excavations of Fa-Hien Lena. Some of the main finds from the site include single and doubled-pointed bone tools that scientists had suspected were used to kill prey and make use of other natural resources. All artefacts were then examined using a stereo microscope fitted with an AxioCam camera, which showed direct traces of their original use.

Map of Sri Lanka with the site of Fa-Hien Lena shown alongside views of the cave and section from which the materials of the study come. Applying the same microscopy to other bone tools, the team identified implements which seem to have been associated with freshwater fishing in nearby tropical streams, as well as the working of fibre to make nets or clothing.

Rather than protecting the body from the cold, evidence suggests that clothing was deliberately made to suit the circumstances — as a layer of protection from insect-borne disease.

The new study is part of a growing awareness that many regions of the world saw extraordinary and complex new technologies emerge at the end of the Palaeolithic period. The study has been published in Science Advances.

Paleolithic Period, also spelled Palaeolithic Period, also called Old Stone Age, ancient cultural stage, or level, of human development, characterised by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools. The onset of the Paleolithic Period has traditionally coincided with the first evidence of tool construction and use by Homo some 2.

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At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period 2, toyears agosimple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been some of the earliest human ancestors. A more-sophisticated Lower Paleolithic tradition known as the Chopper chopping-tool industry is widely distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere and tradition is thought to have been the work of the hominin species named Homo erectus.

Asia's 'oldest bone and arrow' unearthed in Sri Lanka

Aboutyears ago a new Lower Paleolithic tool, the hand ax, appeared. The earliest European hand axes are assigned to the Abbevillian industry, which developed in northern France in the valley of the Somme River.

A later, more-refined hand-axe tradition is seen in the Acheulean industry, evidence of which has been found in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.Google Playformerly Android Marketis a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google. It serves as the official app store for certified devices running on the Android operating systemallowing users to browse and download applications developed with the Android software development kit SDK and published through Google.

Google Play also serves as a digital media store, offering music, books, movies, and television programs. It previously offered Google hardware devices for purchase until the introduction of a separate online hardware retailer, Google Storeon March 11,and it also offered news publications and magazines before the revamp of Google News on May 15,and it also offered music until October when the service was replaced with YouTube Music.

Applications are available through Google Play either free of charge or at a cost. They can be downloaded directly on an Android device through the proprietary Play Store mobile app or by deploying the application to a device from the Google Play website. Applications utilizing hardware capabilities of a device can be targeted to users of devices with specific hardware components, such as a motion sensor for motion-dependent games or a front-facing camera for online video calling.

The Google Play store had over 82 billion app downloads in and has reached over 3. Google Play was launched on March 6,bringing together Android Market, Google Music, and the Google eBookstore under one brand, marking a shift in Google's digital distribution strategy. Following their re-branding, Google has gradually expanded the geographical support for each of the services.

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ByGoogle Play featured more than 3. Its standalone mobile app was launched on July 24, Google Play Music was a music and podcast streaming service and online music locker. Google Play Books is an ebook digital distribution service. Google Play offers over five million ebooks available for purchase, [16] and users can also upload up to 1, of their own ebooks in the form of PDF or EPUB file formats. Google Play Newsstand is a news aggregator and digital newsstand service offering subscriptions to digital magazines and topical news feeds.

As ofpaid Newsstand content was available in more than 35 countries. The Newsstand section continued to appear on the Google Play website until November 5,but now is only available through the Google News app. Until MarchGoogle Play had a "Devices" section for users to purchase Google Nexus devices, ChromebooksChromecastsother Google-branded hardware, and accessories.

A separate online hardware retailer called the Google Store was introduced on March 11,replacing the Devices section of Google Play. The program is invitation-only for app developers, who then can integrate the service into their existing apps. Google introduced Project Mainline in Android 10allowing core OS components to be updated via the Google Play Storewithout requiring a complete system update. Android 10 supports updates for core OS components including:. This feature was initially introduced with Android Oreo but vendors had not added support yet.

Which includes apps that meet higher standards that are approved by teachers. Android Market was announced by Google on August 28,[32] [33] and was made available to users on October Apart from searching for content by name, apps can also be searched through keywords provided by the developer. Google Play enables users to know the popularity of apps, by displaying the number of times the app has been downloaded.

Users can submit reviews and ratings for apps and digital content distributed through Google Play, which are displayed publicly. Ratings are based on a 5-point scale.Google Shopping[2] formerly Google Product SearchGoogle Products and Froogleis a Google service invented by Craig Nevill-Manning which allows users to search for products on online shopping websites and compare prices between different vendors.

Google announced at its Marketing Live event in May that the new Google Shopping will integrate the existing Google Express marketplace into a revamped shopping experience. Google Shopping is also available in France, accessible from the web only. A colored price tag icon replaces the parachute icon from Google Express.

On the web, shoppers can either go to the Google Search homepage to enter a search query and then select the Shopping tab under the navigation bar, or go directly to the Google Shopping homepage to search for specific items, browse departments, and see trending items and promotional offers.

The Google Shopping mobile app opens directly to the shopping homepage, where shoppers can similarly search or browse, and access their shopping lists, order history and notification settings. Currently, the product inventory available on the app is less robust than what is available on the web, since it currently reflects items shoppers can only buy directly on Google.

In addition to shopping from well-known online stores, users can shop with confidence at lesser-known online stores when they choose to buy directly on Google, which includes a Google-backed guarantee. When on the web, shoppers can identify products they can buy on Google by either looking for the colored cart icon within a product image, or by selecting the Buy on Google filter.

Shoppers can see personalized product recommendations and promotional offers on the Google Shopping homepage depending on their Google account settings. Other features geared to help shoppers find the best prices and places to buy include the ability to track the price of a product, compare the total order cost at online or nearby stores, and access product reviews and related video content. Originally, the service listed prices submitted by merchants, and was monetized through AdWords advertising like other Google services.

However, in MayGoogle announced that the service which was also immediately renamed Google Shopping would shift in late to a paid model where merchants would have to pay the company in order to list their products on the service.

Created by Craig Nevill-Manning [8] and launched in DecemberFroogle was different from most other price comparison services in that it used Google's web crawler to index product data from the websites of vendors instead of using paid submissions.

With its re-branding as Google Product Search, the service was modified to emphasize integration with Google Search ; listings from the service could now appear alongside web search results. Google prominently featured the service result in Google Search starting in January in Germany and the United Kingdom. Alongside the announcement of an immediate re-brand to Google Shopping on May 31,Google also announced that in lateit would change the service to use a "pay-to-play" model, where merchants would have to pay Google to list their products on the service, with results influenced by both relevance and the bid amounts they pay.

Google justified the move by stating that it would allow the service to "deliver the best answers for people searching for products and help connect merchants with the right customers. The change proved controversial; some small businesses showed concern that they would not be able to compete with larger companies that can afford a larger advertising budget.

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Google also revealed plans to integrate Google Catalogs with Google Shopping, to give users "more ways to find ideas and inspiration as you shop and engage with your favorite brand. In MarchGoogle introduced Shopping Actions, a commission based model, where customers can shop "on the Google Assistant and Search with a universal cart, whether they're on mobile, desktop, or even a Google Home device" [15]. Initial case studies on the impact of Shopping Actions vs Google Shopping alone show positive results, with higher Average Order Value, increase in basket size, and higher revenue to merchants.

Google Shopping was originally known as Frooglea pun on the term " frugal. Google was found to have abused its market dominance as a search engine by giving illegal advantages to another Google product, its own comparison shopping service. According to the European Commission, Google started giving its own Froogle significantly better treatment than rivals as early as A total million citizens of the European Economic Area are claimed to have been deprived of the full benefits of competition, genuine choice and innovation.Leo Weekly Horoscope Leo, you may be riding on a cloud.

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